Cigarettes are highly_____。(addict)
There are a number of factors, which determine the onset of smoking, and these are largely psychological and social. They include availability of cigarettes, curiosity, rebelliousness, appearing thought, anticipation of adulthood, social confidence, the example of parents and teachers, and smoking by friends and older brothers and sisters.
It should be much easier to prevent children from starting to smoke than to persuade adults to give up the habit once established, but in fact this has proved very difficult. The example set by people in authority, especially parents, health care workers, and teachers, is of prime importance. School roles should forbid smoking by children on the premises. This role has been introduced at Summerhill School where I spent my schooldays.
There is, however, a risk of children smoking just to rebel against the rules, and even in those schools which have tried to enforce no smoking by corporal punishment there is as much smoking as in other schools. Nevertheless, banning smoking is probably on balance beneficial. Teachers too should not smoke on school premises, at least not in front of children.
In this passage the author puts an emphasis on ______.
A．the effect of smoking among children
B．the difficulty in preventing children from smoking
C．the reasons why children start smoking among children
D．the measures to ban smoking among children
But wait. We've already tried that. For 13 years, between 1920 and 1933 there were no liquor stores anywhere in the United States. They were shut down abolished by an amendment (修正案) to the Constitution (to 18th) and by a law of Congress (the Volstead Act). After January 20, 1920, there was supposed to be no more manufacturing, selling, or transporting of "intoxicating liquors." Without any more liquor, people could not drink it. And if they did not drink it, how could they get drunk？ There would be no more dangers to the public welfare from drunkenness and alcoholism. It was all very logical. And yet prohibition of liquor, beer, and wine did not work. Why？
Because, law or no law, millions of people still liked to drink alcohol. And they were willing to take risks to get it. They were not about to change their tastes and habits just because of a change in the law. And gangs of liquor smugglers made it easy to buy an illegal drink. They smuggled millions of gallons of the outlawed beverages across the Canadian and Mexican borders. Crime and drunkenness were both supposed to decline as a result of prohibition. Instead people drank more alcohol than ever-- often poisonous alcohol.
On December 5th, 1993 they repealed (撤销) prohibition by ratifying (批准) the 21st Amendment to the Constitution.
Which of the following was NOT a characteristic reason for the proposal of the 18th Amendment to the Constitution and the Volstead Act？
A．There would be no further danger to the public from alcoholism.
B．There would be a rise in the cost of alcoholic beverages.
C．Without liquor, people would not drink.
D．People would not become drank or create a public nuisance.
Because of this interaction, the person who both smokes and drinks heavily may be at a greater risk of becoming ill than one who drinks like a fish, but never smokes or who smokes like a chimney, but never drinks. To get an idea of how this synergism may work, consider what happens when a smoker lights up a cigarette. With each puff he inhales at least 4,000 different chemicals. These include toxic hydrogen-cyanide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen-dioxide gases, and four dozen compounds such as benzo pyrene and radioactive polonium 210 . All are known as carcinogens. Most chemical vapors in tobacco smoke get deposited in the mouth, nose, throat and lungs in a coating called tar. It is in this tar that most of the cancer--inducing potential of tobacco smoke lies. Then in a scenario typical of chronic heavy drinkers--most of whom also smoke--our smoker feels thirsty and washes down that smoke coating in his mouth and throat with whisky. The alcohol in his drink is not in itself a carcinogen, but it may act as a solvent, dissolving the tar-taped tobacco poisons, and easing the transport of carcinogens across membranes.
Our smoker continues to drink. Soon he lights another cigarette and inhales deeply. Behind his embattled lungs, meanwhile, his liver has gone on full alert to save his life. The three-pound chemical factory, which cleans most toxins from the bloodstream, reacts to alcohol as a foreign substance and metabolizes 95 percent of it into other chemicals. But in turning its energy to clearing just one-half ounce of pure alcohol--the amount in a standard drink--per hour from our drinking smoker's blood, the liver's other metabolic functions suffer a sharp decrease. Poisons from tobacco smoke that otherwise would be removed from his blood within minutes are now allowed to flood his body for hours or days, depending on how much alcohol the liver must dispose of.
The person who smokes one or two packs of cigarettes a day loses on average six to eight percent of his blood's oxygen carrying capacity. If our heavy smoker's use of alcohol has led to alcoholism, he is probably malnourished. This malnourishment compounds problems he is having with insufficient oxygen. His brain cells are dying from it.
The synergistic effect of alcohol and tobacco may deliver a powerful blow to the cardiovascular system as well as the upper respiratory tract. For those prone to hypertension who drink more than two ounces of alcohol a day, high blood pressure is common and with it the increased risk of stroke and heart attack. For hypertensives who combine smoking and drinking, the risks are even greater.
Which of the following can be the best title of this passage？
A．Dead Mixer=Alcohol+ Tobacco.
B．Alcohol and Tobacco Are Dangerous to Health.
C．Tobacco Contains a Lot of Toxic Compounds.
D．Interaction of the Alcohol and Tobacco.